Human Studies and Analytical Reports Released Analyzing Cardiovascular and Physiologic Effects of TASER X26

Studies Affirm TASER General Safety

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| Source: TASER International, Inc.

SCOTTSDALE, Ariz., Oct. 2, 2007 (PRIME NEWSWIRE) -- TASER International, Inc. (Nasdaq:TASR), a market leader in advanced electronic control devices, today announced that ten (10) new medical and scientific study posters, abstracts, and papers were published that document recent medical and scientific studies of TASER(r) technology. All of these studies affirmed the general safety of the TASER(r) electronic control device. Six (6) of these studies were presented at the Fourth Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress (MEMC IV), in Sorrento, Italy during September 15-18, 2007.

Several of these studies used human volunteers that underwent cardiovascular and physiologic evaluations on the effects of TASER activation in a human body and reached the following conclusions

(Abstract) (Poster) (09/17/07) Ultrasound Measurement of Cardiac Activity During Conducted Electrical Weapon Application in Exercising Adults. J. Ho; R. Reardon; D. M. Dawes; M. Johnson; J. Miner.


   Conclusions:  A 15-second CEW application on exercised volunteers
   did not demonstrate any evidence of induced tachyarrhythmia. It
   is unlikely that CEW exposure induces cardiac rate capture or
   tachyarrhythmia in humans.

(Abstract) (Poster) (09/18/07) Absence of Electrocardiographic Change Following Prolonged Application of a Conducted Electrical Weapon in Physically Exhausted Adults. J. Ho; D. Dawes; H. Calkins; M. Johnson.


   Conclusions:  Prolonged 15-second CEW application in a
   physically exhausted adult human sample did not cause a
   detectable change in their 12-lead ECGs. Theories of CEW
   induced dysrhythmias are not supported by our findings.

(Abstract) (Poster) (09/19/07) 15-Second Conducted Electrical Weapon Exposure Does Not Cause Core Temperature Elevation In Non-Environmentally Stressed Resting Adults. D. M. Dawes; J. Ho; M. Johnson; J. Miner.


   Conclusions: In summary, our results do not show that a
   15-second conducted electrical weapon discharge significantly
   affects core body temperature in non-environmentally stressed 
   resting adults. While additional studies are needed, our data
   suggests that theories about conducted electrical weapons 
   contributing to hyperthermia are likely unfounded. 

(Abstract) (Poster) (09/19/07) The Neuroendocrine Effects of the TASER X26 Conducted Electrical Weapon as Compared to Oleoresin Capsicum. D. M. Dawes; J. Ho; M. Johnson; J. Miner.


   Conclusions:  The results suggest a significant greater
   level of activation of the stress cascade with O.C. compared
   to the CEW.  Overlapping confidence intervals preclude a
   definitive statement about the other measurements, but do
   not suggest a greater activation of the stress cascade by
   the CEW than O.C.

(Abstract) (Poster) (09/19/07) 15-Second Conducted Electrical Weapon Application Does Not Impair Basic Respiratory Parameters, Venous Blood Gases, or Blood Chemistries. D. M. Dawes; J. Ho; M. Johnson; J. Miner.


   Conclusions:  As with the previous study, this study suggests
   that exposure to a CEW does not significantly impair
   respiration.  As in the previous study, pCO2 decreased and
   pO2 increased as a result of the exposure. There was no change
   in blood pH.  While this study is small, it adds to the
   growing body of literature that is demonstrating that these
   weapons have a favorable risk-benefit ratio and are appropriate
   additions to the use of force continua of police agencies.

(Abstract) (Poster) (09/19/07) Breathing Parameters, Venous Gases, and Chemistries with Exposure to a New Wireless Projectile Conducted Electrical Weapon. D. M. Dawes; J. Ho; M. Johnson; J. Miner; E. Lundin.


   Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the new CEW has no
   important deleterious effects on respiratory parameters, blood
   chemistries, or venous blood gases.  These results are
   consistent with previous results for the TASER X26 CEW.

(08/29/07) Physiological Effects of a Conducted Electrical Weapon on Human Subjects, Gary M. Vilke, MD, Christian M. Sloane, MD, Katie D. Bouton, BS, Fred W. Kolkhorst, PhD, Saul D. Levine, MD, Tom S. Neuman, MD, Edward M. Castillo, PhD, MPH, Theodore C. Chan, MD. Article in Press, Ann Emerg Med. 2007;xx:xxx.


   Conclusion:  A 5-second exposure of a TASER X26 to healthy
   law enforcement personnel does not result in clinically
   significant changes of physiologic stress.

The above studies can be reviewed at: http://memciv.abstractcentral.com/login (create login, and open "search" tab and search by author's last name or abstract title or number).

The abstracts below can be viewed at: http://www.taser.com/RESEARCH/SCIENCE/Pages/default.aspx.

(09/19/07) Cardiac Current Density Distribution by Electrical Pulses from TASER Devices, Panescu D, Kroll MW, McDaniel W, Stratbucker RA., Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1(1):6305-6307.


   Conclusions:  TASER ECDs deliver electrical pulses that can
   temporarily incapacitate subjects. The goal of this paper
   is to analyze the distribution of TASER currents in the
   heart and understand their chances of triggering cardiac
   arrhythmias.  The models analyzed herein describe
   strength-duration thresholds for myocyte excitation and
   ventricular fibrillation induction.  Finite element modelling
   is used to compute current density in the heart for
   worst-case TASER electrode placement. The model predicts
   a maximum TASER current density of 0.27 mA/cm2 in the heart.
   It is conclude that the numerically simulated TASER current
   density in the heart is about half the threshold for myocytes
   excitation and more than 500 times lower than the threshold
   required for inducing ventricular fibrillation. Showing a
   substantial cardiac safety margin, TASER devices do not
   generate currents in the heart that are high enough to excite
   myocytes or trigger VF.

(09/19/07) Finite Element Modeling of Electric Field Effects of TASER Devices on Nerve and Muscle. Panescu D, Efimov IR, Kroll MW, Sweeney JD. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1(1):1277-1279.


   Conclusions:  TASER ECDs deliver electrical pulses that can
   temporarily incapacitate subjects.  The goal of this paper
   is to analyze the distribution of currents in muscle layers
   and understand the electro-muscular incapacitation safety
   and efficacy of TASER ECDs.  The analyses describe skeletal
   muscle and motor nerve activation, cell electroporation and
   current and electric field distributions through skin, fat
   and muscle layers, under worst-case assumptions for TASER
   electrode penetration and separation.  For the muscle
   layer, the analysis predicts worst-case current-density
   and field-strength values of 94 mA/cm2 and 47 V/cm. Both
   values are higher than thresholds required for neuromuscular
   activation but significantly lower than levels needed
   for permanent cellular electroporation or tissue damage. The
   results indicate that TASER ECDs are safe and effective in
   producing temporary subject incapacitation.

(08/28/07) Can the Direct Cardiac Effects of the Electric Pulses Generated by the TASER X26 Cause Immediate or Delayed Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Normal Adults? Raymond E. Ideker, MD, PhD, and Derek J. Dosdall, PhD. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1 Sep 2007 28(3): p. 195.


   Conclusion:  It is highly unlikely that the TASER X26 can
   cause ventricular fibrillation either instantly or minutes
   to hours after its use through direct cardiac effects of
   the electric field generated by the TASER.

Note: Dr. Ideker is recognized as the international authority on fibrillation with over 400 scientific papers to his credit.

"We applaud the exhaustive efforts of these innovative physicians and scientists in their continual research into the medical safety of our life-saving TASER systems," said Rick Smith, CEO of TASER International. "These studies of human volunteers affirm the general safety of TASER technology and continue to refute the unfounded and inaccurate media reports of the TASER device causing in-custody deaths."

About TASER International, Inc.

TASER International's products protect life. TASER provides advanced Electronic Control Devices (ECDs) for use in the law enforcement, medical, military, corrections, professional security, and personal protection markets. TASER devices use proprietary technology to incapacitate dangerous, combative, or high-risk subjects who pose a risk to law enforcement officers, innocent citizens, or themselves in a manner that is generally recognized as a safer alternative to other uses of force. For more information please call TASER International at (800) 978-2737 or visit our website at www.TASER.com.

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This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), including statements, without limitation, regarding our expectations, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future. We intend that such forward-looking statements be subject to the safe-harbor provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The forward-looking information is based upon current information and expectations regarding TASER International. These estimates and statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, are not guarantees of future performance, and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual outcomes and results could materially differ from what is expressed, implied, or forecasted in such forward-looking statements.

TASER International assumes no obligation to update the information contained in this press release. These statements are qualified by important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected by the forward-looking statements. Such factors include but are not limited to: (1) market acceptance of our products; (2) our ability to establish and expand direct and indirect distribution channels; (3) our ability to attract and retain the endorsement of key opinion-leaders in the law enforcement community; (4) the level of product technology and price competition for our products; (5) the degree and rate of growth of the markets in which we compete and the accompanying demand for our products; (6) risks associated with rapid technological change and new product introductions; (7) competition; (8) litigation including lawsuits resulting from alleged product related injuries and death; (9) media publicity concerning allegations of deaths and injuries occurring after use of the TASER device and the negative effect this publicity could have on our sales; (10) TASER device tests and reports; (11) product quality; (12) implementation of manufacturing automation; (13) potential fluctuations in our quarterly operating results; (14) financial and budgetary constraints of prospects and customers; (15) order delays; (16) dependence upon sole and limited source suppliers; (17) negative reports concerning the TASER device; (18) fluctuations in component pricing; (19) government regulations and inquiries; (20) dependence upon key employees and our ability to retain employees; (21) execution and implementation risks of new technology; (22) ramping manufacturing production to meet demand; (23) medical and safety studies; (24) field test results; and (25) other factors detailed in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including, without limitation, those factors detailed in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K and its Form 10-Qs.

The statements made herein are independent statements of TASER International. The inclusion of any third parties does not represent an endorsement of any TASER International products or services by any such third parties.

TASER International, Inc.
Steve Tuttle, Vice President of Communications
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