Constellium Reports Second Quarter 2021 Results

Paris, FRANCE


PARIS, July 28, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Constellium SE (NYSE: CSTM) today reported results for the second quarter ended June 30, 2021.

Second quarter 2021 highlights:

  • Shipments of 406 thousand metric tons, up 31% compared to Q2 2020
  • Revenue of €1.5 billion, up 47% compared to Q2 2020
  • Net income of €108 million compared to a net loss of €32 million in Q2 2020
  • Adjusted EBITDA of €170 million, up 110% compared to Q2 2020
  • Cash from Operations of €73 million and Free Cash Flow of €35 million

First half 2021 highlights:

  • Shipments of 791 thousand metric tons, up 12% compared to H1 2020
  • Revenue of €2.9 billion, up 16% compared to H1 2020
  • Net income of €156 million compared to a net loss of €63 million in H1 2020
  • Adjusted EBITDA of €291 million, up 27% compared to H1 2020
  • Cash from Operations of €148 million and Free Cash Flow of €81 million
  • Net debt / LTM Adjusted EBITDA of 3.7x at June 30, 2021

Jean-Marc Germain, Constellium’s Chief Executive Officer said, “Constellium delivered record Adjusted EBITDA and solid Free Cash Flow generation in the second quarter. Each of our segments contributed to this success with record Adjusted EBITDA in P&ARP and AS&I. P&ARP delivered strong all-around performance amid very strong can sheet demand. A&T benefited from a robust TID market and maintained its focus on cost control. In AS&I, strong industry demand and solid cost control more than offset the impact from the semiconductor shortage on automotive demand. I am exceptionally proud of our second quarter performance, with Adjusted EBITDA exceeding 2019 levels and leverage falling nearly a full turn from the recent peak to 3.7x."

Mr. Germain concluded, "I look to the second half of the year with confidence. Demand from our major end markets, with the exception of aerospace, is at or above pre-pandemic levels. We expect these favorable conditions to continue at least through the remainder of 2021. Based on our current outlook, we are raising our guidance and now expect Adjusted EBITDA of €545 million to €560 million and Free Cash Flow in excess of €125 million in 2021.”

Group Summary

 Q2
2021
 Q2
2020
 Var. YTD
2021
 YTD
2020
 Var. 
Shipments (k metric tons)406 310 31% 791 703 12% 
Revenue (€ millions)1,518 1,031 47% 2,859 2,468 16% 
Net income / (loss) (€ millions)108 (32) n.m. 156 (63) n.m. 
Adjusted EBITDA (€ millions)170 81 110% 291 228 27% 
Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton (€)418 261 60% 368 325 13% 

The difference between the sum of reported segment revenue and total group revenue includes revenue from certain non-core activities and inter-segment eliminations. The difference between the sum of reported segment Adjusted EBITDA and the Group Adjusted EBITDA is related to Holdings and Corporate.

For the second quarter of 2021, shipments of 406 thousand metric tons increased 31% compared to the second quarter of last year due to higher shipments in each of our segments. Revenue of €1.5 billion increased 47% compared to the second quarter of the prior year primarily due to higher shipments and higher metal prices. Net income of €108 million increased compared to a net loss of €32 million in the second quarter of 2020. Adjusted EBITDA of €170 million increased 110% compared to the second quarter of last year due to stronger results in each of our segments.

For the first half of 2021, shipments of 791 thousand metric tons increased 12% compared to the first half of 2020 on higher shipments in our Packaging & Automotive Rolled Products and Automotive Structures & Industry segments. Revenue of €2.9 billion increased 16% compared to the first half of 2020 primarily due to higher metal prices and higher shipments, partially offset by weaker price and mix. Net income of €156 million in 2021 compares to a net loss of €63 million in the first half of 2020. Adjusted EBITDA of €291 million increased 27% compared to the first half of 2020 on stronger results in our Packaging & Automotive Rolled Products and Automotive Structures & Industry segments, partially offset by weaker results in our Aerospace & Transportation segment.

Results by Segment

Packaging & Automotive Rolled Products (P&ARP)

 Q2
2021
 Q2
2020
 Var. YTD
2021
 YTD
2020
 Var. 
Shipments (k metric tons)284 221 29% 551 490 12% 
Revenue (€ millions)907 565 61% 1,673 1,317 27% 
Adjusted EBITDA (€ millions)94 58 63% 162 124 31% 
Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton (€)332 262 27% 294 252 17% 

For the second quarter of 2021, Adjusted EBITDA increased 63% compared to the second quarter of 2020 primarily due to higher shipments, improved price and mix, and favorable metal costs, partially offset by higher costs and unfavorable foreign exchange translation. Shipments of 284 thousand metric tons increased 29% compared to the second quarter of last year on higher shipments of packaging, automotive, and specialty rolled products. Revenue of €907 million increased 61% compared to the second quarter of 2020 primarily due to higher metal prices and higher shipments.

For the first half of 2021, Adjusted EBITDA of €162 million increased 31% compared to the first half of 2020 primarily due to higher shipments, improved price and mix, and strong cost control, partially offset by unfavorable foreign exchange translation. Shipments of 551 thousand metric tons increased 12% compared to the first half of 2020 on higher shipments of packaging, automotive, and specialty rolled products. Revenue of €1.7 billion increased 27% compared to the first half of 2020 primarily due to higher metal prices and higher shipments.

Aerospace & Transportation (A&T)

 Q2
2021
 Q2
2020
 Var. YTD
2021
 YTD
2020
 Var. 
Shipments (k metric tons)53 45 16% 101 104 (3)% 
Revenue (€ millions)287 250 15% 532 609 (13)% 
Adjusted EBITDA (€ millions)42 31 34% 61 83 (26)% 
Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton (€)794 691 15% 610 802 (24)% 

For the second quarter of 2021, Adjusted EBITDA increased 34% compared to the second quarter of 2020 primarily due to higher shipments on strong TID demand and strong cost control, partially offset by weaker price and mix from lower aerospace shipments. Shipments of 53 thousand metric tons increased 16% compared to the second quarter of 2020 as higher transportation, industry and defense rolled product shipments were partially offset by lower aerospace rolled product shipments. Revenue of €287 million increased 15% compared to the second quarter of 2020 on higher metal prices and higher shipments, partially offset by weaker price and mix.

For the first half of 2021, Adjusted EBITDA of €61 million decreased 26% compared to the first half of 2020 primarily due to lower shipments and weaker price and mix from lower aerospace shipments, partially offset by strong cost control. Shipments of 101 thousand metric tons decreased 3% compared to the first half of 2020 due to lower shipments of aerospace rolled products, partially offset by higher shipments of transportation, industry, and defense rolled products. Revenue of €532 million decreased 13% compared to the first half of 2020 primarily due to weaker price and mix, partially offset by higher metal prices.

Automotive Structures & Industry (AS&I)

 Q2
2021
 Q2
2020
 Var. YTD
2021
 YTD
2020
 Var. 
Shipments (k metric tons)69 44 56% 139 109 27% 
Revenue (€ millions)345 222 55% 695 564 23% 
Adjusted EBITDA (€ millions)41 (1) n.m. 79 33 138% 
Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton (€)587 (31) n.m. 563 301 87% 

For the second quarter of 2021, Adjusted EBITDA increased by €42 million compared to the second quarter of 2020 primarily due to higher shipments, improved price and mix, and solid cost control. Shipments of 69 thousand metric tons increased 56% compared to the second quarter of 2020 on higher shipments of automotive and other extruded products driven by strong market demand. Revenue of €345 million increased 55% compared to the second quarter of 2020 primarily due to higher shipments and higher metal prices.

For the first half of 2021, Adjusted EBITDA of €79 million increased 138% compared to the first half of 2020 primarily due to higher shipments, improved price and mix, and solid cost control. Shipments of 139 thousand metric tons increased 27% compared to the first half of 2020 on higher shipments of automotive and other extruded products driven by strong market demand. Revenue of €695 million increased 23% compared to the first half of 2020 primarily due to higher shipments and higher metal prices, partially offset by weaker price and mix.

Net Income

For the second quarter of 2021, net income of €108 million compares to a net loss of €32 million in the second quarter of the prior year. The change in net income is primarily related to higher gross profit and a favorable change in gains and losses on derivatives related to our commodity hedging positions, partially offset by a change in income tax expense.

For the first half of 2021, net income of €156 million compares to a net loss of €63 million in the first half of the prior year. The change in net income is primarily related to higher gross profit and a favorable change in gains and losses on derivatives related to our commodity hedging positions, partially offset by a change in income tax expense.

Cash Flow

Free Cash Flow was €81 million for the first half of 2021 compared to €54 million in the first half of the prior year. The change was primarily due to stronger Adjusted EBITDA and lower capital expenditures, partially offset by an unfavorable change in working capital.

Cash flows from operating activities were €148 million for the first half of 2021 compared to cash flows from operating activities of €152 million in the first half of the prior year. Constellium decreased derecognized factored receivables by €14 million for the first half of 2021 compared to a decrease of €73 million in the first half of the prior year.

Cash flows used in investing activities were €67 million for the first half of 2021 compared to cash flows used in investing activities of €97 million in the first half of the prior year.

Cash flows used in financing activities were €232 million for the first half of 2021 compared to cash flows from financing activities of €140 million in the first half of the prior year. In the first half of 2021, Constellium issued $500 million of 3.75% Sustainability-Linked Senior Notes due 2029 and €300 million of 3.125% Sustainability-Linked Senior Notes due 2029 and used the proceeds and cash on the balance sheet to redeem the $650 million of 6.625% Senior Notes due 2025 and the $400 million of 5.75% Senior Notes due 2024. In the first half of 2020, Constellium raised $325 million of 5.625% Senior Notes due 2028 and used a portion of the proceeds to redeem the remaining balance of the 4.625% Senior Notes due 2021. In the same period, Constellium entered into a €180 million loan partially guaranteed by the French State and a CHF 20 million facility partially guaranteed by the Swiss Government.

Liquidity and Net Debt

Liquidity at June 30, 2021 was €887 million, comprised of €290 million of cash and cash equivalents and €597 million available under our committed lending facilities and factoring arrangements.

Net debt was €1,976 million at June 30, 2021 compared to €1,994 million at December 31, 2020.

Outlook

Based on our current outlook, we expect Adjusted EBITDA in a range of €545 million to €560 million in 2021.

We are not able to provide a reconciliation of this Adjusted EBITDA guidance to net income, the comparable GAAP measure, because certain items that are excluded from Adjusted EBITDA cannot be reasonably predicted or are not in our control. In particular, we are unable to forecast the timing or magnitude of realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivative instruments, metal lag, impairment or restructuring charges, or taxes without unreasonable efforts, and these items could significantly impact, either individually or in the aggregate, net income in the future.

Forward-looking statements

Certain statements contained in this press release may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. This press release may contain “forward-looking statements” with respect to our business, results of operations and financial condition, and our expectations or beliefs concerning future events and conditions. You can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as, but not limited to, “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “should,” “approximately,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “targets,” likely,” “will,” “would,” “could” and similar expressions (or the negative of these terminologies or expressions). All forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Many risks and uncertainties are inherent in our industry and markets, while others are more specific to our business and operations. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: market competition; economic downturn; disruption to business operations, including the length and magnitude of disruption resulting from the global COVID-19 pandemic; the inability to meet customer demand and quality requirements; the loss of key customers, suppliers or other business relationships; the capacity and effectiveness of our hedging policy activities; the loss of key employees; levels of indebtedness which could limit our operating flexibility and opportunities; and other risk factors set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 20-F, and as described from time to time in subsequent reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The occurrence of the events described and the achievement of the expected results depend on many events, some or all of which are not predictable or within our control. Consequently, actual results may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this press release. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

About Constellium

Constellium (NYSE: CSTM) is a global sector leader that develops innovative, value added aluminium products for a broad scope of markets and applications, including aerospace, automotive and packaging. Constellium generated €4.9 billion of revenue in 2020.

Constellium’s earnings materials for the second quarter ended June 30, 2021, are also available on the company’s website (www.constellium.com).

Ryan Wentling – Investor RelationsDelphine Dahan-Kocher – Communications
Phone: +1 (443) 988-0600Phone: +1 (443) 420 7860
investor-relations@constellium.comdelphine.dahan-kocher@constellium.com


CONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENT (UNAUDITED)

  Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2021  2020  2021  2020 
         
Revenue 1,518  1,031  2,859  2,468 
Cost of sales (1,319) (957) (2,518) (2,241)
Gross profit 199  74  341  227 
Selling and administrative expenses (67) (57) (127) (123)
Research and development expenses (9) (7) (20) (20)
Other gains and losses - net 44  (11) 87  (79)
Income / (loss) from operations 167  (1) 281  5 
Finance costs - net (37) (42) (92) (87)
Income / (loss) before tax 130  (43) 189  (82)
Income tax (expense) / benefit (22) 11  (33) 19 
Net income / (loss) 108  (32) 156  (63)
Net income attributable to:        
Equity holders of Constellium 107  (33) 153  (64)
Non-controlling interests 1  1  3  1 
Net income / (loss) 108  (32) 156  (63)


Earnings per share attributable to the equity holders of Constellium, (in Euros)        
Basic 0.76 (0.24) 1.09 (0.46)
Diluted 0.73 (0.24) 1.04 (0.46)
         
Weighted average shares,
in thousands
        
Basic 140,637 137,901  140,302 137,903 
Diluted 146,730 137,901  146,730 137,903 


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME / (LOSS) (UNAUDITED)

  Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2021  2020  2021  2020 
         
Net income / (loss) 108  (32) 156  (63)
Other comprehensive income / (loss)        
Items that will not be reclassified subsequently to the interim income statement        
Remeasurement on post-employment benefit obligations 24  (35) 89  (41)
Income tax on remeasurement on post-employment benefit obligations 2  10  (11) 9 
Items that may be reclassified subsequently to the interim income statement        
Cash flow hedges 3  5  (8)  
Income tax on hedges (1) (2) 2   
Currency translation differences (1) (2) 12  (2)
Other comprehensive income / (loss) 27  (24) 84  (34)
Total comprehensive income / (loss) 135  (56) 240  (97)
Attributable to:        
Equity holders of Constellium 134  (57) 236  (98)
Non-controlling interests 1  1  4  1 
Total comprehensive income / (loss) 135  (56) 240  (97)


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION (UNAUDITED)

(in millions of Euros) At June 30, 2021 At December 31, 2020
     
Assets    
Current assets    
Cash and cash equivalents 290  439 
Trade receivables and other 669  406 
Inventories 802  582 
Other financial assets 63  39 
  1,824  1,466 
Non-current assets    
Property, plant and equipment 1,895  1,906 
Goodwill 430  417 
Intangible assets 59  61 
Deferred tax assets 162  193 
Trade receivables and other 69  68 
Other financial assets 16  18 
  2,631  2,663 
Total Assets 4,455  4,129 
     
Liabilities    
Current liabilities    
Trade payables and other 1,255  905 
Borrowings 262  92 
Other financial liabilities 26  46 
Income tax payable 23  20 
Provisions 20  23 
  1,586  1,086 
Non-current liabilities    
Trade payables and other 32  32 
Borrowings 1,995  2,299 
Other financial liabilities 10  41 
Pension and other post-employment benefit obligations 581  664 
Provisions 95  98 
Deferred tax liabilities 12  10 
  2,725  3,144 
Total Liabilities 4,311  4,230 
     
Equity    
Share capital 3  3 
Share premium 420  420 
Retained deficit and other reserves (295) (538)
Equity attributable to equity holders of Constellium 128  (115)
Non-controlling interests 16  14 
Total Equity 144  (101)
     
Total Equity and Liabilities 4,455  4,129 


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY (UNAUDITED)

(in millions of Euros) Share
capital
 Share
premium
 Re-
measurement
 Cash
flow
hedges
 Foreign
currency
translation
reserve
 Other
reserves
 Retained
losses
 Total  Non-
controlling
interests
 Total
equity
At January 1, 2021 3 420 (192) 9  (13) 68 (410) (115) 14  (101)
Net income          153  153  3  156 
Other comprehensive income / (loss)   78  (6) 11     83  1  84 
Total comprehensive income / (loss)   78  (6) 11   153  236  4  240 
Share-based compensation         7   7    7 
Transactions with non-controlling interests              (2) (2)
At June 30, 2021 3 420 (114) 3  (2) 75 (257) 128  16  144 
                     
(in millions of Euros) Share
capital
 Share
premium
 Re-
measurement
 Cash
flow
hedges
 Foreign
currency
translation
reserve
 Other
reserves
 Retained
losses
 Total Non-
controlling
interests
 Total
equity
At January 1, 2020 3 420 (177) (10) 4  53 (389) (96) 11  (85)
Net (loss) / income          (64) (64) 1  (63)
Other comprehensive loss   (32)   (2)    (34)   (34)
Total comprehensive (loss) / income    (32)   (2)  (64) (98) 1  (97)
Share-based compensation         8   8    8 
Transactions with non-controlling interests                 
At June 30, 2020 3 420 (209) (10) 2  61 (453) (186) 12  (174)


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)

  Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2021  2020  2021  2020 
Net income / (loss) 108  (32) 156  (63)
Adjustments        
Depreciation and amortization 65  66  128  132 
Impairment of assets   5    5 
Pension and other post-employment benefits service costs 10  10  17  17 
Finance costs - net 37  42  92  87 
Income tax expense / (benefit) 22  (11) 33  (19)
Unrealized (gains) / losses on derivatives - net and from remeasurement of monetary assets and liabilities - net (15) (44) (45) 11 
Other - net 3  10  5  13 
Change in working capital        
Inventories (103) 52  (212) 35 
Trade receivables (126) 57  (234) 7 
Trade payables 117  (176) 300  (18)
Other (7) 32    15 
Change in provisions   7  (4) 5 
Pension and other post-employment benefits paid (10) (8) (21) (20)
Interest paid (28) (23) (72) (73)
Income tax refunded   21  5  18 
Net cash flows from operating activities 73  8  148  152 
         
Purchases of property, plant and equipment (42) (43) (74) (100)
Property, plant and equipment grants received 4  2  7  2 
Proceeds from disposals, net of cash   1    1 
Net cash flows used in investing activities (38) (40) (67) (97)
         
Proceeds from issuance of Senior Notes 300  290  712  290 
Repayments of Senior Notes (328) (200) (863) (200)
Repayments from U.S. revolving credit facilities   (132)   (129)
Proceeds from other borrowings   204  2  207 
Repayments from other borrowings (7) (1) (9) (4)
Lease repayments (8) (9) (17) (17)
Payment of financing costs and redemption fees (10) (9) (26) (9)
Transactions with non-controlling interests (2)   (2)  
Other financing activities (32) (2) (29) 2 
Net cash flows (used in) / from financing activities (87) 141  (232) 140 
         
Net (decrease) / increase in cash and cash equivalent (52) 109  (151) 195 
Cash and cash equivalents - beginning of year 342  270  439  184 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents   (1) 2  (1)
Cash and cash equivalents - end of period 290  378  290  378 


SEGMENT ADJUSTED EBITDA

  Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2021  2020  2021  2020 
P&ARP 94  58  162  124 
A&T 42  31  61  83 
AS&I 41  (1) 79  33 
Holdings and Corporate (7) (7) (11) (12)
Total 170  81  291  228 


SHIPMENTS AND REVENUE BY PRODUCT LINE

  Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30,
(in k metric tons) 2021  2020  2021  2020 
Packaging rolled products 213  189  407  392 
Automotive rolled products 59  28  122  85 
Specialty and other thin-rolled products 12  4  22  13 
Aerospace rolled products 13  19  26  49 
Transportation, industry, defense and other rolled products 40  26  75  55 
Automotive extruded products 29  15  63  46 
Other extruded products 40  29  76  63 
Total shipments 406  310  791  703 
         
(in millions of Euros)        
Packaging rolled products 648  456  1,167  980 
Automotive rolled products 213  88  421  281 
Specialty and other thin-rolled products 46  21  85  56 
Aerospace rolled products 100  142  187  365 
Transportation, industry, defense and other rolled products 187  108  345  244 
Automotive extruded products 176  96  377  295 
Other extruded products 169  126  318  269 
Other and inter-segment eliminations (21) (6) (41) (22)
Total revenue 1,518  1,031  2,859  2,468 


NON-GAAP MEASURES

Reconciliation of net income to Adjusted EBITDA (a non-GAAP measure)

  Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2021  2020  2021  2020 
Net income / (loss)  108  (32) 156  (63)
Income tax expense / (benefit) 22  (11) 33  (19)
Income / (loss) before tax  130  (43) 189  (82)
Finance costs - net 37  42  92  87 
Income / (loss) from operations  167  (1) 281  5 
Depreciation and amortization 65  66  128  132 
Impairment of assets   5    5 
Restructuring costs 2  11  3  11 
Unrealized (gains) / losses on derivatives (16) (43) (44) 10 
Unrealized exchange losses / (gains) from the remeasurement of monetary assets and liabilities – net 1  (1) (1) 1 
Losses on pension plan amendments 2  2  2  2 
Share based compensation costs 3  5  7  8 
Metal price lag (A) (54) 25  (85) 40 
Start-up and development costs (B)   2    4 
Other (C)   10    10 
Adjusted EBITDA  170  81  291  228 


(A)Metal price lag represents the financial impact of the timing difference between when aluminium prices included within Constellium's Revenue are established and when aluminium purchase prices included in Cost of sales are established. The Group accounts for inventory using a weighted average price basis and this adjustment aims to remove the effect of volatility in LME prices. The calculation of the Group metal price lag adjustment is based on an internal standardized methodology calculated at each of Constellium’s manufacturing sites and is primarily calculated as the average value of product recorded in inventory, which approximates the spot price in the market, less the average value transferred out of inventory, which is the weighted average of the metal element of cost of sales, based on the quantity sold in the year.
(B) Start-up and development costs, for the six months ended June 30, 2020 were related to new projects in our AS&I operating segment.
(C) Other, in the six months ended June 30, 2020, included €5 million of procurement penalties and termination fees incurred because of the Group's inability to fulfill certain commitments due to the COVID-19 pandemic and a €5 million loss resulting from the discontinuation of hedge accounting for certain forecasted sales that were determined to be no longer expected to occur in light of the COVID-19 pandemic effects.


Reconciliation of net cash flows from operating activities to Free Cash Flow (a non-GAAP measure)

  Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2021  2020  2021  2020 
Net cash flows from operating activities 73  8  148  152 
Purchases of property, plant and equipment (42) (43) (74) (100)
Property, plant and equipment grants received 4  2  7  2 
Free Cash Flow 35  (33) 81  54 


Reconciliation of borrowings to Net debt (a non-GAAP measure)

(in millions of Euros) At June 30, 2021 At December 31, 2020
Borrowings 2,257  2,391 
Fair value of net debt derivatives, net of margin calls 9  42 
Cash and cash equivalents (290) (439)
Net debt 1,976  1,994 


Non-GAAP measures

In addition to the results reported in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), this press release includes information regarding certain financial measures which are not prepared in accordance with IFRS (“non-GAAP measures”). The non-GAAP measures used in this press release are: Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton, Free Cash Flow and Net debt. Reconciliations to the most directly comparable IFRS financial measures are presented in the schedules to this press release. We believe these non-GAAP measures are important supplemental measures of our operating and financial performance. By providing these measures, together with the reconciliations, we believe we are enhancing investors’ understanding of our business, our results of operations and our financial position, as well as assisting investors in evaluating the extent to which we are executing our strategic initiatives. However, these non-GAAP financial measures supplement our IFRS disclosures and should not be considered an alternative to the IFRS measures and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.

In considering the financial performance of the business, management and our chief operational decision maker, as defined by IFRS, analyze the primary financial performance measure of Adjusted EBITDA in all of our business segments. The most directly comparable IFRS measure to Adjusted EBITDA is our net income or loss for the period. We believe Adjusted EBITDA, as defined below, is useful to investors and is used by our management for measuring profitability because it excludes the impact of certain non-cash charges, such as depreciation, amortization, impairment and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives as well as items that do not impact the day-to-day operations and that management in many cases does not directly control or influence. Therefore, such adjustments eliminate items which have less bearing on our core operating performance.

Adjusted EBITDA measures are frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties in their evaluation of Constellium and in comparison to other companies, many of which present an Adjusted EBITDA-related performance measure when reporting their results.

Adjusted EBITDA is defined as income / (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes, results from joint ventures, net finance costs, other expenses and depreciation and amortization as adjusted to exclude restructuring costs, impairment charges, unrealized gains or losses on derivatives and on foreign exchange differences on transactions which do not qualify for hedge accounting, metal price lag, share based compensation expense, effects of certain purchase accounting adjustments, start-up and development costs or acquisition, integration and separation costs, certain incremental costs and other exceptional, unusual or generally non-recurring items.

Adjusted EBITDA is the measure of performance used by management in evaluating our operating performance, in preparing internal forecasts and budgets necessary for managing our business and, specifically in relation to the exclusion of the effect of favorable or unfavorable metal price lag, this measure allows management and the investor to assess operating results and trends without the impact of our accounting for inventories. We use the weighted average cost method in accordance with IFRS which leads to the purchase price paid for metal impacting our cost of goods sold and therefore profitability in the period subsequent to when the related sales price impacts our revenues. Management believes this measure also provides additional information used by our lending facilities providers with respect to the ongoing performance of our underlying business activities. Historically, we have used Adjusted EBITDA in calculating our compliance with financial covenants under certain of our loan facilities.

Adjusted EBITDA is not a presentation made in accordance with IFRS, is not a measure of financial condition, liquidity or profitability and should not be considered as an alternative to profit or loss for the period, revenues or operating cash flows determined in accordance with IFRS.

Free Cash Flow is defined as net cash flow from operating activities less capital expenditure, equity contributions and loans to joint ventures and other investing activities. Management believes that Free Cash Flow is a useful measure of the net cash flow generated or used by the business as it takes into account both the cash generated or consumed by operating activities, including working capital, and the capital expenditure requirements of the business. However, Free Cash Flow is not a presentation made in accordance with IFRS and should not be considered as an alternative to operating cash flows determined in accordance with IFRS. Free Cash Flow has certain inherent limitations, including the fact that it does not represent residual cash flows available for discretionary spending, notably because it does not reflect principal repayments required in connection with our debt or capital lease obligations.

Net debt is defined as borrowings plus or minus the fair value of cross currency basis swaps net of margin calls less cash and cash equivalents and cash pledged for the issuance of guarantees. Management believes that Net debt is a useful measure of indebtedness because it takes into account the cash and cash equivalent balances held by the Company as well as the total external debt of the Company. Net debt is not a presentation made in accordance with IFRS, and should not be considered as an alternative to borrowings determined in accordance with IFRS.